Category: pharmacology

Paralytics in ARDS

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute PETAL Clinical Trials Network published a large randomized controlled trial comparing NMBs(neuromuscular blocker) to placebo in patients with moderate to severe adult respiratory distress syndrome(PEEP of at least >8 with ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen of <150 mm Hg). …

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Newer Antibiotics for Acute Skin Infections

Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) or Acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs) encompass a variety of pathological conditions that involve the skin and underlying subcutaneous tissue, fascia, or muscle, ranging from simple superficial infections to severe necrotizing infections. Two terms are used interchangeably in literature but according to FDA, ABSSSIs include cellulitis/erysipelas, wound infection, …

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Newer Antibiotics for Community Acquired Pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with a significant impact on morbidity rates. Increasing antibiotic resistance amongst the common bacterial pathogens associated with CAP, especially staphylococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae, has made the empiric treatment of this infection increasingly problematic. Approximately 6% of CAP are caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. During recent decades, …

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Norepinephrine superior in cardiogenic shock after myocardial infarction

Levy B, Clere-Jehl R, Legras A et el published results of prospective double-blind multicenter randomized control trial comparing Epinephrine and norepinephrine in patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to percutaneous coronary intervention treated acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND Use of vasopressor agents during severe cardiogenic shock is  to maintain the adequacy of and organ blood flow, which …

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Do not discard haloperidol yet

T.D. Girard, M.C. Exline, S.S. Carson, C.L. Hough, P. Rock, M.N. Gong et el  published the results of MIND-USA(Modifying the Impact of ICU-Induced Neurological Dysfunction-USA) trial in New England Journal of Medicine October 22, 2018 Issue.  STUDY It was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing patients with acute respiratory failure or shock and hypoactive or hyperactive delirium to …

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It is okay to abruptly stop steroids in resolving septic shock

Kristine A. Sobolewski , Alison Brophy , Yekaterina Opsha et el published a retrospective cohort study comparing abrupt withdrawal versus taper of hydrocortisone in resolving septic shock patients. BACKGROUND Severe sepsis and septic shock remains one of the most common diagnosis as well as cause of death in intensive care units around the world. Hydrocortisone has been shown to quicker …

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Epinephrine in Cardiac arrest : Saves lives but not brain

G.D. Perkins, C. Ji, C.D. Deakin, T. Quinn et el  published a trial of epinephrine in out of hospital cardiac arrest in NEJM ( PARAMEDIC2 Collaborators ). BACKGROUND Epinephrine  causes constriction of arterioles mediated by α-adrenergic receptors. Such constriction increases aortic diastolic pressure during CPR, thereby augmenting coronary blood flow and increasing the chance of a return of spontaneous circulation.  It …

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FDA approves Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate for Hyperkalemia

In May, 2018, FDA approved Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate (ZS-9) for treatment of hyperkalemia. This is available as Lokelma in USA, manufactured by AstraZeneca. This is the third drug in the category of Gastrointestinal cation exchangers for treatment of hyperkalemia. Earlier two drugs are sodium polystyrene sulfonate(Kayexalate, approved in 1958) and patiromer(Approved in 2015). Its efficacy …

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Norepinephrine better than Terlipressin in Septic Shock

Liu ZM, Chen J, Kou Q et el published results of a randomized trial in intensive care medicine comparing Terlipressin with Norepinephrine in septic shock. BACKGROUND Norepinephrine (NE) is first line recommended agent for correcting hypotension in septic shock. Terlipressin is a synthetic long acting analogue of Vasopressin which has higher affinity for V1 receptor. …

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